ENDNOTES

1. For violence see inter alia G. Ruggiero, 'The Cooperation of Physicians and the State in the Control of Violence in Renaissance Venice' , in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 33 (1978), pp.156-66, and for sexual crime the same author's The Boundaries of Eros. Sex Crime and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice (Oxford, 1985). Religious 'dissent' has been most recently treated in J. Martin, Venice's Hidden Enemies. Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1993).

2. The Corpus Christi Procession is discussed in E. Muir, Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice, pp.223-30, citing the observations of the fifteenth-century pilgrims Pietro Casolo and Sir Richard Guylforde.

3. For the history of the cappella at St. Mark's during the sixteenth century see R.B.M. Lenaerts, La chapelle de Saint-Marc a Venise sous Adrien Willaert', Bulletin de l'Institut historique belge de Rom XIX (1938), pp.205-55, and G. Ongaro, 'Sixteenth-Century Patronage at St. Mark's, Venice, Early Music History 8 (1988), pp.81-115. Overviews of the changing conditions of cinquecento Venetian musical life are given in D. Bryant, 'La musica nelle istituzioni religiose e profane di Venezia' , in Arnaldi and Stocchi (eds.), Storia della cultura veneta 4/1, pp.433-47, and in I. Fenlon, 'Venice: Theatre of the World' in I. Fenlon (ed.), Man and Music. The Renaissance. From the 1470s to the End of the 16th Century (London, 1989) pp. 102-32.

4. A. Pasini, 'Rito antico e ceremoniale della basilica' , in La basilica di San Marco (Venice, 1888), pp.65-71 provides a brief general introduction to the operations of the patriarchino. See also G. Fasoli, 'Liturgia e ceremoniale ducale' , in A Pertusi (ed.), Venezia e il Levante fino al secolo XV, 2 vols. (Florence, 1973), I, pp.261-95; M. Dal Tin, 'Note di liturgia patriarchina e canti tradizionale della basilica di S. Marco a Venezia' , in Jucunda I-IV (1973), pp.90-130. The sources of the patriarchino have recently been exhaustively described and analysed in G. Cattin, Musica e liturgia a San Marco. Testi e melodie per la liturgia delle ore dal XII al XVII secolo. Dal graduale tropato del duecento ai graduali cinquecenteschi, 4 vols. (Venice, 1990-92); see in particular vol.1, chapter 1.

5. For the calendar see S. Tramontin, 'Il "kalendarium" veneziano' , in S. Tramontin (ed.), Il culto dei santi a Venezia (Venice, 1965), pp.275-327.

6. Tramontin, 'Il kalendarium', pp.278-9.

7. G. Cappelletti, Storia della chiesa di Venezia dalla sua fondazione sino ai nostri giorni, 6 vols. (Venice, 1849-50), I, pp.411-14.

8. For some of the political motivations which may have lain behind the substitution of Theodore by Mark see Muir, Civic Ritual, pp.93-95.

9. S. Tramontin, 'RealtÓ e leggenda nei racconti marciani veneti' , in Studi veneziani 12 (1970), pp.35-58, argues that the four major Venetian feastdays associated with Mark were allegories for political or constitutional events. The textual history of the translatio legend is treated in N. Mc Cleary, 'Note storiche et archeologiche sul testo della Translatio S. Marci' , in Memorie storiche forogiulesi XXVII-XXIX (1931-33), pp.223-4; for further discussion see also P.J. Geary, Furta sacra: Thefts of Relics , in the Central Middle Ages (Princeton, 1978), pp.107-15; G.R. Michiel, Le origine delle feste veneziane, 6 vols. (Milan, 1817), I, pp.63-83 and E. Muir, Civic Ritual, pp.78-92.

10. For an analysis see Muir, Civic Ritual, pp.119-34 and the literature cited there. On Marian cults in general in Venice see Tramontin (ed.), Il culto dei santi a Venezia, cha.8.

11. J. Roche, 'Liturgical Aspects of the Motets of Andrea Gabrieli Published in 1565 and 1576' , in F. Degrada (ed.), Andrea Gabrieli e il suo tempo. Atti del convegno internazionale (Venezia 16-18 Settembre 1985) (Florence, 1987), pp.215-[29].

12. Roche, 'Liturgical Aspects', p.217. The non-liturgical motet as a type is discussed in A. M. Cummings, Towards an Interpretation of the Sixteenth-Century Motet', Journal of the American Musicological Society XXIV (1981), pp.43-59.

13. G. Bassano, Concerti ecclesiastici...libro secondo (Venice, 1599); A. and G. Gabrieli, Concerti...continenti musica di chiesa, madrigali, & altro per voci & stromenti musicali (Venice, 1587).

14. Cited in S. Tramontin, 'San Marco' , in Tramontin (ed.), Il culto dei santi a Venezia, p.64.

15. For the historical origins of the sacral role of the Doge see P. Prodi, 'The Structure and Orgaanisation of the Church in Renaissance Venice: Suggestions for Research" , in J. Hale (ed.), Renaissance Venice (London, 1973), especially pp.413-15.

16. Fasoli, 'Liturgia e ceremoniale ducale', p.283; G. Musolino, 'Antiche feste popolari' , in Tramontin (ed.), Il culto dei santi a Venezia, pp.214-5.

17. For a fundamental study which places the liturgical sources together with Venetian polyphonic music of the early seventeenth century see J. H. Moore, Vespers at St. Mark's. Music of Alessandro Grandi, Giovanni Rovetta and Francesco Cavalli, 2 vols. (Ann Arbor, 1981). See also the same author's 'The "Vespero delli Cinque Laudate" and the Role of "Salmi Spezzati" at St. Mark's' , in Journal of the American Musicological Society, pp.249-78.

18. Willemsz's diary is published in its entirety, and with a reasonable degree of accuracy, in C. J. Gonnet (ed.), 'Bedevaart naar Jerusalem, volbracht en beschreven in het jaar 1525, door Meester Arent Willemsz, barbier tot Delft in Hollant', Bijdragen voor geschiedenis van het bisdom Haarlem 11 (1882), pp.1-185. For some preliminary remarks on its descriptions of Venetian music and liturgy see I. Fenlon, 'Music at St. Mark's before Willaert,' Early Music XXI (1993), pp.547-63 and now, in greater detail, in 'Strangers in Paradise, Dutchmen at St. Mark's in 1527' in XXXXXXXXXXX [Galloschrift]. For the evidence of Johannes de Quadris at St. Mark's see L. Lutteken, '"Musicus et cantor diu in ecclesia sancti Marci de Veneciis": note biografiche su Johannes de Quadris', Rassegna veneta di studi musicali, V-VI (1989/90), pp.43-62.

19. I salmi appertinenti alli vesperi...a uno et a duoi chori (Venice, 1550). This contains eight salmi spezzati by Willaert, all proper to one or more of the feasts on which Vespers is known to have been sung in St. Mark's with double-choir music and the Pala d'oro open. Although Zarlino credited Willaert with the invention of the double-choir psalm, recent scholarship has uncovered early sixteenth-century examples, some of which may be antecedents, from elsewhere in the Veneto; for a resume of the situation see A. Carver, Cori spezzati. The Development of Sacred Polychoral Music to the Time of Schutz, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1988), I, chapter 2.

20. For the andata see the detailed description in F. Sansovino, Venezia citta nobilissima et singolare (Venice, 1604, ed. rev. G. Stringa), fol.330ff. The phenomenon is analysed in Muir, Civic Ritual, pp.189-211, where Matteo Pagan's woodcuts showing the procession in its entirety are also reproduced.

21. The participation of the cappella in the ducal andata is often noted in contemporary documents; see, for example, Moore, Vespers at St. Mark's, I, p.184. For the involvement of the scuole grandi see Glixon, 'Far una bella processione: Music and Public Ceremony at the Venetian scuole grandi' , in R. Charteris (ed.), Altro Polo. Essays on Italian Music in the Cinquecento (Sydney, 1990), pp.190-220.

22. For a detailed analysis of the narrative content of the picture and of the circumstances surrounding its commission see P. F. Brown, Venetian Narrative Painting in the Age of Carpaccio (New Haven and London, 1988), where the work is also illustrated. Its musical content is discussed in H. M. Brown, 'On Gentile Bellini's Processione in San Marco (1496)', International Musicological Society Congress Report XII (Berkeley, 1977), (Kassel and London, 1900), pp.649-58.

23. See, in general, R. Gallo, Reliquie e reliquari veneziani', Rivista di Venezia XIII (1934), pp.187-214, and Tramontin (ed.), Il culto dei santi a Venezia.

24. The principal printed descriptions of the re-discovery of the relics, of the procession and of their exposition in the Basilica are G. Thiepolo, Trattato delle santissime reliquie ultimamente ritrovate nel Santuario della Chiesa di San Marco (Venice, 1617); A. Suriano, Breve descrittione del sacro thesoro delle reliquie ritrovate nel Santuario della Chiesa Ducale di San Marco & honorate con solenne processione a 28 di Maggio del 1617 (Venice, 1617) and G.C. Vergaro, Racconto dell' apparato et solennita fatta nella ducal chiesa de San Marco di Venetia (Venice, 1617). For a discussion of one of the relics refound in 1617 see D. Pincus, 'Christian Relics and the Body Politic: A Thirteenth-Century Relief Plaque in the Church of San Marco' , in D. Rosand (ed.), Interpretazioni veneziane. Studi di storia d'arte in onore di Michelangelo Muraro (Venice, 1984), pp.39-57.

25. G. Thiepolo, Trattato dell' imagine della Gloriosa Vergine (Venice, 1618), published shortly after its re-habilitation, provides a history of the icon. For a useful later account see Brevi cenni sopra la prodigiosa immagine di Maria Vergine che si venera nella basilica di San Marco in Venezia (Venice, 1883), which ascribes the construction and adornment of the new altar for the Nicopeia to the piety of the then Doge, Giovanni Bembo.

26. For the general phenomenon see S. Tramontin, 'Influsso orientale nel culto dei santi a Venezia fino al secolo XV' , in Pertusi (ed.), Venezia e il Levante, I, pp.817-20.

27. Cf. Supplicationes Ad Sanctissimam Verginem Mariam. Tempore Belli. Secundum Consuetudinem Ducalis Basilicae S. Marci Venetiarum (Venice, 1695).

28. The connections between devotion to the Virgin and some early seventeenth-century Venetian polyphonic repertories are explored in J. H. Moore, 'Music for the Madonna Nicopeia and Santa Maria della Salute', Journal of the American Musicological Society XXXVII (1984), pp.299-355.

29. For further details of the Venetian development of the Santa Giustina cult in the post-Lepanto period see I. Fenlon, 'Lepanto: Le arti della celebrazione nella Venezia del Rinascimento' , in V. Branca and C. Ossola (eds.), Crisi e rinnovamenti nell'autunno del Rinascimento a Venezia (Florence, 1991), pp.389-98.

30. This process is usefully outlined in A. Baumstark, Liturgia romana e liturgia dell' esarcato. Il rito detto in seguito patriarchino e le origini del 'Canon Missae' romano (Rome, 1904), pp.17-73.

31. Moore, Vespers at St. Mark's, p.113.


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