4. Endnotes

1. A good account of his personal philosophy that Kazantzakis called "The Cretan Glance" is given in Kimon Friar's introduction to The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel (1958: xviii-xx ). 

2. As Herzfeld notes: "The nationalists' Digenes emerged from an act of preordained miscegenation whose subsequent recurrences were to be regarded as corruptions of the Hellenic ideal, affronts to the national honor (ethniko filotimo )" (1987: 107). By this logic, orientalizing elements in Greek culture are seen to be subsumed in a timeless past and become undesirable if they are present in the creating of a historical 'beginning'. Herzfeld is using Edward Said's (1975) terminology here, as he makes a distinction between beginnings and origins, between a timeless and passive past or 'origin' and a historical struggle for identity or 'beginning' (Herzfeld 1987: 108). 

3. Again, Herzfeld (1982) is an important commentator on this question. From Koraes, through Fauriel, Zambelios, Dora D'Istria, N. Politis, Aravandinos and many others, numerous commentators saw the songs as important repositories of Greek identity, supplying an otherwise absent link with an ancient past. 

4. The earliest phase of the debate centring on the music of the cafe aman is documented by Thodoros Hatzpantazis (1986) and reviewed in Gauntlett (1987). This phase and the post-Asia Minor Catastrophe are further discussed in Gauntlett (1989). 

5. There is a burgeoning bibliography on laments; the largest cross-cultural study remains Rosenblatt, Walsh and Jackson (1976) which deals with lament in 78 cultures. Even in those cultures where men also lament the dead, the authors observe that women tend to weep longer and louder and compose more structured laments. 

6. As Burn notes, neither the name Linos nor Maneros is Egyptian (1954: 159). Herodotus's own question about the origin of the song may be a reflection of some Greek confusion about rituals that involved dying gods. 

7. If this is so, it would correspond with many other examples of comedy, games, satire and farce that followed laments or tragic genres in other cultures. The satyr plays that followed trilogies of ancient tragedy are an obvious example, and the wake games that followed the singing of laments in Ireland and many other European countries are another (see Holst-Warhaft 2000: ch. 2). 

8. For this and other recordings I am grateful to late Dino Pappas, who generously made his large collection of Greek and Turkish music available to me on tape as well as supplying me with information based on his deep knowledge of the Greek-American musical scene. 

9. On this aspect of the rebetika see Tachtzis's article in Holst 1977: 202-209. 

10. Frangos notes that other Greek female vocalists recorded in Turkish as well as Armenian, Ladino, Syrians and 'mixed language' between 1911 and 1933 (1994: 45). 

11. The series begins at 150, so this is probably from 1942. 

12. Both Muslim and non-Muslim women did record gazels. Aksoy (1997: 46) mentions seven of the better-known female artists on his notes including Hikmet Riza, Güzide, and the Thessaloniki-born sisters Lale and Nerkis Hanimlar. 

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