7. Endnotes 

1. The word beur, and today’s inversion rebu, comes from French suburban slang (verlan) in which the main rule is word inversion. Often the youngsters born to immigrant parents employ this word to identify themselves. For this reason I have decided to use the term beur in this article. 

2. This reality is not common to France alone. However, the results of this study cannot be generalized before specific study on other similar realities has been done. 

3. Due to his international success, Khaled has not used the appellative cheb since 1992. Cheb is the typical but extremely ethnic Algerian name given to raļ singers to distinguish them from the old singer (chikh)

4. Some days ago I received confirmation that older raļ styles still coexist with new ones, but songs in these styles tell about recent political events. 

5. For more information about Algerian raļ history see the bibliography. 

6. Normally, in fact, the different styles coming from the same repertoire replace each other during the historical process. However, in the new style there could be, at most, only some musical quotation. 

7. Even if in the history of raļ there were some collective concerts, such as the famous Bobigny concert, the stars of raļ performed alone or eventually in the classic duet of man-woman. 

8. About the raļ sound group made up of Algerians living in Algeria I refer to Poulsen 1999. It must be added anyway that Poulsen's fieldwork was carried out from 1990 to the middle of 1992 and Algerian raļ is continually changing. 

9. Music of Kabyli singers was similar to other immigration songs. It is now important to mention that Kabyli people are considered an ethnic minority within Algeria, and usually see themselves as distinct from Arab traditions as well as other Berber cultures, with their own language and customs. It is significant that this group (reputed to have a particularly strong work ethic in Algeria) who was marginalized in the home country was the most keen to emigrate in the 1960s. Kabyli people frequently refer to themselves as the 'original Algerians' present before Islam and Arab domination. Many 'Arab' Algerians, on the other hand, portray all Berbers as somewhat savage, and some claim that Kabyli people were descended from Roman settlers, and therefore were not really 'native.' 

10. Urban music style from the Alger area that has relevant success among Algerian immigrants.

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