Women's progress toward managerial positions and toward more equitable pay for similar or the same work has been considerable. However, thirty years after the original equal pay legislation, female managers still earn much less than their male counterparts on average. This analysis seeks to update past research on women's progress in management by examining the trends in the gender pay gap over the past eighteen years. It includes an overview of current patterns of the gender distribution of employment within managerial occupations and the ways in which they have changed over the period. Both supply-side and demand-side hypotheses are tested using the Oaxaca decomposition method. Wage inequality measures are also constructed in this paper. Trend analysis shows large increases in the sex ratio and a narrowing of the gender pay gap over the period under study. Results of the decomposition support both supply-side and demand-side hypotheses as explanations of the gender pay gap. One interesting finding is that wage inequality tends to increase within the female managers group as more women have entered senior-level positions.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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