Physics, Applied (APPH)
Department of Physics
L. MICHAEL HAYDEN, Chair
TERRANCE L. WORCHESKY, Associate Chair
TODD B. PITTMAN, Graduate Program Director
FRANSON, JAMES D., Ph.D., California Institute of Technology; Quantum optics, quantum information, fundamentals of quantum theory
HAYDEN, L. MICHAEL, Ph.D., University of California, Davis; Photo-refractive and electro-optic properties of polymers, non-linear optics, terahertz science, imaging
JOHNSON, ANTHONY, Ph.D., City College of the City University of New York; Non-linear optics, photonics, fast optical phenomena
ROUS, PHILIP J., Ph.D., Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, U.K.; Theoretical physics, surfaces, interfaces, nano-structures
SHIH, YANHUA, Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park; Non-linear and quantum optics, laser physics
GEORGANOPOULOS, MARKOS, Ph.D., Boston University, high energy astrophysics, active galactic nuclei, relativistic jets, extragalactic background light.
GEORGE, M. IAN, Ph.D., University of Leicester, U.K.; X-ray astronomy, active galactic nuclei, quasars, photoionized gas
GOUGOUSI, THEODOSIA, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Thin films, surfaces and interfaces, Atomic Layer Deposition.
HENRIKSEN, MARK J., Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park; X-ray astronomy, astrophysics
KRAMER, IVAN, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Theoretical physics, mathematical modeling techniques
MARTINS, J. VANDERLEI, Ph.D., University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Atmospheric physics, aerosols, clouds, instrument development, in situ and remote sensing
PITTMAN, TODD B., Ph.D., University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Quantum optics, quantum information, non-linear optics
SPARLING, LYNN C., Ph.D., University of Texas; Atmospheric physics, dynamics and modeling
TAKACS, LASZLO, Ph.D., Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest; Mechanical alloying, X-ray diffraction
TURNER, T. JANE, Ph.D., University of Leicester, U.K.; X-ray astronomy, active galactic nuclei
WORCHESKY, TERRANCE L., Ph.D., Georgetown University; Electro-optic effects in III-V semi-conductors
KESTNER, JASON, Ph.D., University of Michigan; Theoretical physics, semiconductor quantum dots, cold atoms, quantum information
ZHANG, ZHIBO, Ph.D., Texas A&M University; Remote Sensing, Cloud Physics, Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions.
Research Faculty: Professors
STROW, L. LARRABEE, Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park; Infrared molecular spectroscopy, atmospheric physics
Research Faculty: Associate Professors
KOCHUNOV, PETER, Ph.D., University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio; MRI, quantitative imaging, imaging genetics.
Affiliated Faculty: Professors
REMER, LORRAINE, Ph.D. University of California, Davis; Aerosols, remote sensing and climate change.
Affiliated Faculty: Associate Professors
DAVIS, DAVID S., Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park; Multi-wavelength studies of galaxies
HOBAN, SUSAN, PhD, University of Maryland, College Park; Planetary Science, Comets, Dust in the Solar System, STEM Education
KUNDU, PRASUN, Ph.D., University of Rochester; Precipitation processes, stochastics
MCCANN, KEVIN, Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology; Atmospheric physics, atomic and molecular scattering
OLSON, WILLIAM, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin; Modeling of cloud processes
POTTSCHMIDT, KATJA, Ph.D., University of Tuebingen, Germany; High energy astrophysics, accreting X-ray binary stars
VARNAI, TAMAS, Ph.D. McGill University, Canada; Cloud heterogeneities
Affiliated Faculty: Assistant Professors
ENGEL, DON, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Computational physics, molecular biophysics, statistical artificial intelligence.
DE-SOUZA-MACHADO, SERGIO, Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park; Atmospheric spectroscopy, plasma physics
The Department of Physics at UMBC offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. in Applied Physics. The programs are structured to provide concentrations in solid-state physics, quantum and non-linear optics, astrophysics and atmospheric physics with many research opportunities in each area. The research in the solid-state physics concentration includes the classical and quantum properties of condensed matter, with emphases on solid-state, surface physics, nano-physics and polymer physics. The research in the optics concentration includes the interaction of electro-magnetic radiation with matter, with emphases on optical and infrared spectroscopy, non-linear optics, light scattering, quantum optics, quantum computing, optical information processing, imaging, terahertz optics and photonics. The department also houses the UMBC/NASA/ UMCP/USRA Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology and the Joint Center for Astrophysics. Research in our program in astrophysics includes X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy and the study of active galactic nuclei.
The research in the atmospheric physics concentration includes atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric lidar, radiative transfer and remote sensing. This research is performed in conjunction with the UMBC/ NASA Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET). The department also offers a graduate program in atmospheric physics, details of which may be found in a separate entry in this catalog. The department's research areas have relevance to research programs in other departments, including physical chemistry, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, so applied physics students have the opportunity to interact with graduate students and faculty in several other departments at UMBC.
Graduate students in applied physics have the advantage of being located in one of the greatest concentrations of scientific research and engineering activity in the world. The Baltimore-Washington area, with its wealth of public, private, government, and university laboratories, offers almost unlimited opportunities for research collaboration and future employment. Nearby institutions include the National Institute for Standards and Technology, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Space Telescope Institute, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Many of the department's faculty work closely with these institutions.
Faculty members in the department have expertise in a wide range of research fields, including non-linear optical studies of inorganic crystals, organic materials and polymers, laser physics, quantum optics, atmospheric physics and lidar, infrared spectroscopy, metal and semi-conductor physics, radiation effects, ceramics, X-ray diffraction, phase transformations, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, surface physics, magnetism and X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics.
Master of Science (M.S.)
The M.S. degree program is designed to offer students maximum flexibility, with most of the course requirements being electives. The minimum requirement for the master's degree is 30 credit hours, of which 18 credit hours must be taken at the 600 level or higher. Students are encouraged to choose the thesis option, although a non-thesis option is available. All students must complete the core curriculum consisting of PHYS 605: Mathematical Physics and either PHYS 601: Quantum Mechanics I or PHYS 424: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, taken for graduate credit. Each of these two required courses must be passed with a minimum grade of 'B.' Also, all students are required to take PHYS 698: Physics Seminar for two semesters and PHYS 690: Professional Techniques in Physics.
Students selecting the thesis option must complete a further 15 credit hours of course work approved by a faculty advisor and a minimum of six credit hours of PHYS 799, Master's Thesis Research, in addition to the M.S. core curriculum. Approval of the graduate program director is required if the thesis research is not performed under the direction of a faculty member within the UMBC physics department.
Students selecting the non-thesis option must complete a further 21 credit hours of lecture course work, write a scholarly paper as part of an elective course and pass a written comprehensive examination, in addition to the M.S. core curriculum. The comprehensive written exam must be taken and passed during the first two years that a student is in the master's program. At least 12 of the additional 21 credits must be from courses offered by the physics department, unless approved in advance by the graduate advisor.
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
The minimum requirement for the Ph.D. degree is 46 credit hours, with 28 credit hours of lecture courses at the 600 level or higher and 18 credit hours of doctoral research (PHYS 899). All prospective doctoral students must complete the Ph.D. core curriculum consisting of PHYS 601: Quantum Mechanics I, PHYS 602: Statistical Mechanics, PHYS 605: Mathematical Physics I; PHYS 606: Classical Mechanics, and PHYS 607: Electromagnetic Theory. In addition to the Ph.D. core curriculum, doctoral students also must pass PHYS 640: Computational Physics, PHYS 690: Professional Techniques in Physics, PHYS 701: Quantum Mechanics II, PHYS 705: Mathematical Physics II, PHYS 707: Advanced Electromagnetic Theory, and a minimum of 18 credit hours of PHYS 899: Doctoral Thesis Research. Also, all students are required to take PHYS 698: Physics Seminar for three semesters. With the permission of the graduate advisor of the applied physics program, students specializing in atmospheric physics may substitute PHYS 621: Atmospheric Physics I, and PHYS 622: Atmospheric Physics II for PHYS 701 and PHYS 707, respectively. They may also substitute PHYS 732: Computational Fluid Dynamics for PHYS 640.
To be admitted to candidacy for the doctoral degree, students must complete the Ph.D. core curriculum with a grade of "B" or higher in each core course and pass a written qualifying examination. The written qualifying examination covers all of undergraduate physics and it is divided into three segments. Each segment is separately passed or failed. The entire examination usually is offered in August and January. The examination must be taken no later than one year after admission into the Ph.D. program. Students who fail a segment of the qualifying examination must retake that segment at the next opportunity. Students who do not pass the entire qualifying examination by the beginning of their third year of being in the doctoral program will not be admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. degree.
After passing the qualifying examination, a prospective doctoral student must select a faculty advisor to supervise their dissertation research. Usually dissertation research is performed under the direction of a tenure-track faculty member of the UMBC Department of Physics. After selecting an advisor, a student should begin acquiring the necessary background knowledge and skills to conduct research and develop a research plan. Within 12 months after passing the qualifying examination, students, in consultation with their advisor, will form a preliminary committee consisting of the advisor and at least two other faculty members from the UMBC Department of Physics. At least two of the members of this committee must be tenure-track faculty. The preliminary committee is charged with determining whether a student should be admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. degree. A recommendation to this effect must be made to the full physics faculty no later than 18 months after a student has passed the written qualifying examination. The full faculty then will vote whether to recommend to the Graduate School that the student be admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. degree.
Immediately after it has been formed, the preliminary committee will meet with the student to discuss the proposed research project and progress to date. The committee will inform the student of any actions he or she must perform satisfactorily for the committee to make a positive recommendation to the faculty.
In formulating its recommendation, the committee may gather and consider any relevant information concerning the student's potential for performing research at the doctoral level. This information should include, but is not limited to, the student's overall graduate record, a written research proposal and an oral presentation of the research project.
After admission to candidacy and completion of the research, the student will be required to write and defend a dissertation before a committee constituted in accordance with Graduate School regulations. This research should be of a quality suitable for publication in a referred physics journal. The chair of this committee must be a regular member of the graduate faculty and a tenure-track faculty member in the Department of Physics.
Program Admission Requirements
Students wishing to enter the Ph.D. or M.S. program in Applied Physics should have an undergraduate degree in physics or in chemistry, engineering or mathematics with significant course work in physics. Ideally, their undergraduate curriculum should have included courses in modern physics, wave mechanics, statistical thermodynamics and classical electromagnetism. All students must meet the minimum standards for admission to the University of Maryland Graduate School, Baltimore. Decisions on admission are made by the UMBC physics department's graduate admissions committee and are based on the applicant's undergraduate grades, letters of recommendation and Graduate Record Examination scores (Aptitude Test and Advanced Test in Physics). In some instances, the GRE Advanced Test requirement may be waived. All original application documents must be sent directly to the Graduate School, not the graduate program.
Facilities and Special Resources
The Physics Building houses more than $7 million of new equipment. All 24 research laboratories are now equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Research facilities include a scanning electron microscope with X-ray characterization and diffraction attachments, scanning tunneling and con-focal microscopes, a large number of high-power and femtosecond pulsed lasers, a digital deep-level transient spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared atmospheric spectrometers, atmospheric lidar systems, precision X-ray diffractometers, a variable-temperature vibrating sample magnetometer, an atomic layer deposition system, a large Beowulf cluster and a large Linux cluster. On the roof of the building is a dome housing a 0.8 m telescope. The Physics Building houses a student/faculty machine shop and a class-100 clean room for producing photonic and other semi-conductor micro-electronic devices. There are also informal meeting rooms; special seminar rooms; and a reading room containing technical books, journals and magazines. The new building was designed specifically so faculty and graduate student offices are located close to the research laboratories for experimentalists or computational facilities for theorists.
State-of-the-art computational facilities are available for research and graduate education. The theoretical research in the department is supported by a 32-processor Linux cluster, several workstations and parallel multi-processor computers. Graduate students have direct access to a suite of research and instructional computers that are located in a graduate student computer laboratory. UMBC is a member of Internet2 with high-speed Internet connectivity. In addition to the extensive range of equipment already in use in the department, a UMBC Office of Information Technology houses a 24-processor SGI Challenge machine and numerous computer laboratories containing SGI, PC, Mac and Linux workstations and clusters. The Albin O. Kuhn Library and Gallery houses more than 1 million books including a large collection of chemistry, engineering, mathematics, physics and journals and monographs. The library also provides access to a complete collection of science journals and books through excellent inter-library loan and online services.
Recent master's graduates have obtained jobs in industry, education and government laboratories, including Northrop Grumman Corp., Essex Corp., the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Essroc Materials, EOIR Measurement Inc. and BTi (San Diego). Recent doctoral graduates have obtained faculty positions at Grove City College, Frostburg State University and California Polytechnic University and research positions at the Naval Research Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Harvard University, Columbia University, University of Wisconsin, Boston University, Penn State University, Louisiana State University, Bonn University (Germany), Bari University (Italy), Lockheed Martin Corp., SFA Inc. and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Nearly all full-time graduate students are offered a 12-month teaching or research assistantship upon admission. In 2013, full-time teaching assistants in the physics department received a stipend of $23,000, health benefits and up to 10 credits of tuition remission each semester. The regular stipend can be augmented by supplemental merit awards to well-qualified students. In addition, Special Merit Fellowships and GAANN Fellowships of $30,000 for the first year have been awarded to exceptionally well-qualified applicants. Research assistantships usually are offered to doctoral students in their second and subsequent years in the program.
Techniques in Experimental Physics 
Design and execution of physical experiments. Advanced theory of error, principles of experimental design, techniques of engineering and construction of apparatus. (Fall)
Quantum Mechanics I 
Postulates, one-dimensional problems, angular momentum, three-dimensional problems, perturbation theory, interaction of quantum systems with the electro-magnetic field, fine structure, hyper-fine structure and the Zeeman effect, the ground state of helium, Kronig-Penny model, applications to solid-state physics and to laser physics. (Fall)
Statistical Mechanics 
Review of statistical mechanics of ideal systems, non-ideal gases, phase transitions, Monte Carlo methods, non-equilibrium systems. (Spring)
Introduction to Materials 
An introductory overview of the material properties of condensed matter, with particular emphasis on a description of the micro-structure of solid materials. A student wishing to obtain a broad overview of the theory and applications of condensed matter physics may take this course in conjunction with the complementary solid-state physics course, PHYS 604. Topics include atomic arrangements in crystalline and amorphous materials; experimental techniques for observing structure down to nanometer scales; point and line defects, their motion and importance; and the differences between bulk and surface arrangements. The thermodynamics of solutions, multi-phase equilibria and phase transformations. Interfaces, nucleation and growth in bulk materials and at surfaces. The course ends with a discussion of the production and properties of technologically important materials, such as semi-conductor thin films and multi-layers, rapidly solidified amorphous materials and materials with useful magnetic and/or optical properties. (Fall)
Solid-State Physics I 
A survey of the physics of metallic, semi-conducting and insulating solids, with particular emphasis on the electronic and vibrational properties of crystals. This course can serve as the first part of a complete two-semester survey of the quantum theory of matter (with PHYS 704). A student wishing to obtain a broad overview of the theory and applications of condensed matter physics may take this course in conjunction with the complementary Physics of Materials course (PHYS 603). The first part of the course concerns the classical theory of the electronic and thermal behavior of metallic solids and the development of the quantum mechanical description of free-electron metals. The failure of the free-electron model leads a discussion of crystal structure, the reciprocal lattice and X-ray crystallography. The one-electron band theory of crystals is developed within the nearly free electron and tight-binding approximations and is applied to the theory of cohesion of simple and transition metals. The electronic properties and device applications of semi-conducting crystals are discussed. The course concludes with a review of the classical and quantum theory of lattice vibrations. (Fall) Prerequisites: PHYS 601 and PHYS 602.
Mathematical Physics 
Group theory, non-linear differential equations, integral transforms, integral equations, numerical methods. (Fall)
Classical Mechanics 
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, normal modes, phase space, non-linear mechanics, numerical methods, stability. (Fall)
Electromagnetic Theory 
Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves in dielectrics, metals and crystals, wave guides, radiation, potentials, and multipoles. (Spring)
Modern Optics 
Geometrical optics: matrix representation of Gaussian optics, optical instruments and aberrations. Wave properties of light: interference, coherence, Michelson interferometer. Fourier optics: diffraction theories, theory of image formation and optical transfer functions holography. Crystal optics: polarization, double refraction, Jones calculus, dielectric tensors, optical activities, electro- and magneto-optical effects and second harmonic generation. (Fall)
Quantum Electronics 
Introduction to quantum theory of electromagnetic fields, interaction of radiation with matter, laser physics, non-linear optics, parametric amplifiers, noise, phase-conjugation, detection of radiation. (Spring) Co- or prerequisites: PHYS 601 and PHYS 607.
Thermodynamics of Materials 
First and second laws, entropy, Gibbs free energy, chemical potential, reactions between gases and condensed phases, behavior of solutions, adsorption, calculation of equilibrium phase diagrams, phase transitions, critical phenomena. (Spring) Prerequisite: PHYS 603.
Introduction to Surface Physics 
A graduate-level introductory survey of the physics of solid surface. Both clean surfaces and adsorption systems will be discussed. A review of both theoretical and experimental techniques will be included. Topics include surface crystallography and characterization, surface electronic structure, electronic excitations and optical properties, thermodynamics and phase transitions, surface kinetics and dynamics, reactions at surfaces, epitaxy and growth. Analytical techniques include low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS), UV photo-emission and inverse photo-emission (UPS, IPES), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), auger spectroscopy (AES) and ion scattering. (Spring) Prerequisite: PHYS 601 or PHYS 424.
Introduction to Nano-Physics and Nano-Structures 
Introductory survey of physics at the nanometer scale, exploring the physical basis of phenomena that appear when the linear dimension of an object or device shrinks below a micron. In addition, the course will discuss the experimental techniques used to construct and characterize nano-structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots, metallic and rare-gas clusters, C60 and carbon nano-tubes. (Spring) Prerequisite: PHYS 601 or PHYS 424.
Semi-conductor Electro-Optic Devices 
A lecture/laboratory course in semi-conductor device physics and the modeling, design and fabrication of electro-optic devices. Carrier drift, diffusion, recombination, p-n junctions and metal-semi-conductor junctions are examined. Waveguides and laser cavities are modeled. Cleanroom facilities and fabrication processing are used to create photodetectors, waveguide modulators and semi-conductor lasers. (Fall) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.
Atmospheric Physics I 
Composition and structure of the Earth's atmosphere, application of thermodynamics to atmospheric problems, development of the fundamental equations of fluid motion, applications to synoptic scale atmospheric circulations, boundary layer effects, global circulation and other selected topics. Note: This course replaces the course PHYS 621: Atmospheric Physics and Optics. (Fall) Prerequisites: PHYS 602 and PHYS 605.
Atmospheric Physics II 
Physical meteorology, including atmospheric aerosols and cloud physics; introduction to atmospheric radiative transfer, including blackbody theory, Kirchoff's law, description of molecular absorption, Rayleigh and description of Mie scattering; simple solutions to the radiative transfer equation; and other selected topics, time permitting (e.g., atmospheric electricity, climatology, atmospheric chemistry). (Spring) Prerequisites: PHYS 621, PHYS 601, PHYS 602, PHYS 605 and PHYS 607.
Atmospheric Physics Measurements 
Design, simulation, and execution of experiments in atmospheric physics and earth sciences using teaching and research instrumentation. The students will be exposed to the processes of development, construction, calibration, and application of instrumentation for the measurement of relevant parameters of the atmosphere in the field and in the laboratory. Students will also use state of the art instrumentation from the atmospheric research laboratories connected to the department. (Spring).
Astrophysics Physics I 
Introduction to the emission, absorption and scattering of radiation by matter in astrophysical environments, illustrated using recent results from the astrophysical literature. Topics include radiative transfer, statistical mechanics, local thermodynamic equilibrium, emission and absorption line diagnostics in common use and the effects of dust. These physical processes will be applied to stellar atmospheres, the interstellar medium, HII regions, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies. (Spring) Prerequisites: PHYS 601 and PHYS 605.
Astrophysics Physics II 
An introduction to gas dynamics within astrophysical environments with a focus on the interactions of matter and radiation with electromagnetic fields on macroscopic scales. Topics include single-fluid theory, differential motion, equilibria of self-gravitating masses and gravitational collapse, viscosity and fluid instabilities, shears, turbulence and shocks, magneto-hydrodynamics and plasma physics. (Fall) Prerequisites: PHYS 631 and PHYS 602.
Computational Physics 
Application of computers and numerical methods to physical models. Boundary value problems, Monte Carlo techniques and modeling. (Spring)
Special Topics in Applied Physics [1-4]
Courses will cover a specialized topic in some field of current interest in applied physics and will be taught by regular and visiting faculty.
Introduction to High-Resolution Spectroscopy 
An introduction to molecular spectroscopy from the microwave to the ultraviolet. Molecular vibrations and rotations and the physics of spectral line shapes will be studied in some detail. Experimental techniques and applications of molecular spectroscopy to astronomy, remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere and other fields will be studied. (Fall) Prerequisite: PHYS 601.
Survey of Techniques in Materials Research 
Electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, diffraction using X-rays, electrons and neutrons, photo-electron and Auger spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering and nuclear techniques. (Spring) Prerequisites: PHYS 603 and PHYS 604.
Professional Techniques in Physics 
Topics include preparing research presentations and posters, using research data bases, writing proposal and preparing budgets and developing resumes.
Physics Seminar 
Each graduate student will attend and discuss a weekly research seminar.
Quantum Mechanics II 
Scattering theory, operator techniques, many particle systems, density matrix, second quantization, quantization of the electromagnetic field and applications. (Spring) Prerequisite: PHYS 601.
Solid-State Physics 
Electronic properties of solids, semi-conductors, super-conductors and electron-phonon interactions. (Spring) Prerequisite: PHYS 604.
Mathematical Physics 
The second course in a two-semester mathematical physics sequence. Functions of a Complex Variable: Singularities, multivalued functions, principal branch and branch cuts. Differentiability and Cauchy-Riemann equations, analyticity and the Laurent expansion. Contour integration and the calculus of residues. Analytic Continuation, integral transforns, and the Gamma function. Applied Statistics and Probability: Sets, combining sets, independent and conditional probability, Bernnoulli trails, the Central Limit Theorem, the Law of large numbers, Bayes theorem, Random variables, distributions, correlations Stochastic processes, stationary processes, spectral analysis (Fourier analysis), Markoff processes, noise and an introduction to detection theory, Sampling, error propagation, curve fitting, hypothesis testing.
Advanced Electromagnetic Theory 
Boundary-value problems, derivation of macroscopic properties, plasma physics, radiation from moving charges, advance topics in radiation, wave guides and cavities. (Fall) Prerequisite: PHYS 607.
Quantum Optics 
Properties of the electromagnetic field, coherent states, squeezed states, Bloch- Maxwell equations and photon optics. (Spring) Prerequisites: PHYS 601 and PHYS 607.
Atmospheric Radiative Transfer 
This course introduces the student to formal radiative transfer theory, which is simplified quickly for application to Earth's atmosphere. The physical processes, which contribute to absorption and scattering in the Earth's atmosphere, are examined. Topics include molecular absorption via vibration-rotation transitions and spectral line formation in homogeneous atmospheres. Raleigh and Mie scattering theory are covered, as well as their application to radiative transfer in clouds and aerosol-laden atmospheres. The importance of radiative transfer to the heat balance of the Earth and implications for weather and climate will be examined. If time permits, various parameterizations and approximation schemes for atmospheric radiative transfer will be developed. Prerequisites: PHYS 621 and PHYS 622, PHYS 604 and PHYS 607, PHYS 602 and PHYS 605.
Remote Sensing of the Earth's Atmosphere 
Techniques for the passive and active remote sensing of the state and composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Fundamentals of radiative transfer as applied to remote sensing. Introduction to measuring radiation and designing passive and active instruments, theoretical background and algorithmic considerations for the passive and active sensing of aerosol and cloud properties, atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity and trace gas concentration and the state and composition of the surface. Prerequisite: PHYS 721.
Atmospheric Dynamics 
Overview of conservation laws, principles of rotating fluids, basic fluid flows and approximations to the primitive equations; description of the dynamics of mid-latitude synoptic systems, baroclinic waves and fronts using idealized models and basic approximations; dispersion, propagation, and energetics of atmospheric waves documented over different temporal and spatial scales of motion; survey of non-hydrostatic cloud and mesoscale convective systems. Prerequisites: PHYS 621 and PHYS 622.
Computational Fluid Dynamics 
Basic concepts and theory of numerical solutions to partial differential equations will be taught, with an emphasis on those related to fluid dynamics. A major application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), numerical weather prediction and climate simulation will be introduced. Prerequisite: PHYS 731.
Inverse Methods and Data Analysis 
This course provides an overview of the mathematical methods used in inverse problems of remote sensing and in atmospheric data analysis. Methods based on estimation theory and variational principles will be presented. Topics include conditional mode and conditional mean estimation, linear and nonlinear least squares and applications to remote sensing and atmospheric data analysis. Prerequisites: PHYS 621, PHYS 622 and STAT 355: Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Scientists and Engineers.
Master's Thesis Research [2-9]
Master's thesis research under the direction of a faculty member. Note: A total of six credits is required. Normally, a student registers for three credits per semester. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
Pre-Candidacy Doctoral Research [3-9]
Doctoral Research 
Doctoral dissertation research under the direction of a faculty member. A minimum of 18 credit hours are required for the Ph.D. Prerequisites: Must be a doctoral candidate and have permission of instructor.