About Us
Contact Us
Team Members
Team Alumni
TTM Measures
The Model
Recommended Articles
Learning Tools
Related Links

Processes of change description


Processes of change is a major dimension of the transtheoretical model that describes how shifts in behavior occur.  Change processes include covert and overt activities and experiences that individuals engage in when they attempt to modify problem behaviors.  Many studies have shown that successful self-changes use different processes during different stages of change.

The Processes of Change Questionnaire is a self-report measure scored on a 5-point Likert scale.  Individuals are asked to indicate how often they may use each thought or situation to help them avoid the problem behavior.

  • Target Population:
    • Adults
  • Administrative Issues:
    • Number of items:
      • 40 items
      • 9- item short version available
        • 48 items (weight loss)
    • Mode of administration:
      • Pencil and paper self-administered
    • Time required to administer:
      • 5-10 minutes
    • Staff expertise required for administration:
      • None
    • Training required for administration:
      • No training required for administration
  • Norms available:
  • Psychometrics:
    • Reliability:
    • Validity:
  • Copyright Information:
    • Instrument is not copyrighted and available at no cost


  • DiClemente, CC, Prochaska, JO, Fairhurst, SK, Velicer, WF, Velasquez, MM, & Rossi, JS.  (1991).  The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 295-304.
  • Perz, CA, DiClemente, CC, & Carbonari, JP.  (1996).  Doing the right thing at the right time? The interaction of stages and processes of change in successful smoking cessation.  Health Psychology, 15, 462-468.
  • Prochaska, JO, Velicer, WF, DiClemente, CC, & Fava, JL.  (1988).  Measuring the processes of change: Applications to the cessation of smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520-528.