8. Endnotes

  1. Üsküdar is where one of the main ferry terminals lie on the Asian side of the city, and the centre of a large informal transport system which connects the terminal to the main areas of gecekondu (squatter town) development on this side of the city. Although it is never easy to generalise, this area remains a fairly working to middle class neighbourhood, somewhat removed from the prestige neighbourhoods around nearby Kadikoy.
  2. Pendik is a part of the large eastward sprawl of this city. It is the site of a great deal of heavy industry, and has a high proportion of inhabitants from the Black Sea area.
  3. The city councils (Belediye) of Istanbul and Ankara are both currently dominated by the Islamist Refah Partisi.
  4. Safiuddin's two theoretical texts summarised the work of the systematist philosophers of the Abbasid courts, reconciling this body of theory with new practices. This theoretical work underpins most contemporary music theory throughout the Middle East (see Wright 1978)
  5. Villoteau was one of the Savants who accompanied and described Napoleon's Egyptian venture. He wrote three books on Egyptian music based on contemporary speculation concerning the origin of music, and his own observations. Rouanet was a French orientalist who did much to systematise Arab modal theory.
  6. Kültür bakimindan Türk, fakat metot bakimindan en koyu sekilde ve tam manasiyla batili.
  7. Dale Eikelman's term is useful in this context. As an educational style, the emphasis on memory in Moroccan Islamic educational systems shapes distinct patterns of authority, truth, and personhood. But Eikelman is also keen to stress the fact that memory is not merely 'pre-literacy': the arts of memory, in this context, coexist with, and must to a certain extent be seen as a response to the more forceful (and colonial) presence of literacy. The use of memory in Turkey to quietly subvert a modernity which relied heavily on literacy and associated notions of 'realism' is, of course, related.

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