5. Endnotes

1. This article is based on a series of field trips for my dissertation study “Musicians, Audience and Power: The Changing Aesthetics in the Music at the Maksim Gazino of Istanbul” and certain portions are taken directly from various sections of my earlier work (Beken, 1998). I would like to express my gratitude to Sally Hawkridge, Kane Mathis and Philip Schuyler for their assistance in various stages of the preparation of this manuscript.

2. "In contrast to the bourgeois or petit-bourgeois cafe or restaurant, where each table is a separate, appropriated territory (one asks permission to borrow a chair or the salt), the working-class cafe is a site of companionship (each new arrival gives collective greeting, 'Salut la compagnie!' etc.) (Bourdieu 1979: 183).”

3. For example, during my fieldwork, Ibrahim Tatlises was dancing and holding his hankerchief just like a leader in an Anatolian row dance with the accompaniment of such Anatolian traditional instruments as davul (double-sided frame drum) and zurna (shawm); thus helping to provide a necessary “cultural code” which enables audience’s “'facile' involvement and 'vulgar' enjoyment” of his music (Bourdieu 1979: 4). In fact, most informants stated that "if Tatlises did not sing in CMG, there would be hardly any audience."

4. The Necdet Yasar Ensemble, Music of Turkey. Music of the World, CDT-128.

5. "... acquisition of legitimate culture by insensible familiarization within the family circle tends to favour an enchanted experience of culture which implies forgetting the acquisition. The 'eye' is a product of history reproduced by education"(Bourdieu 1979: 3).

6. In Redhouse: slang 1. gambling, 2, credulous, easy to be duped. 3. amusement. -alayi: troop of Gypsy musicians. -e bayil to lose in gambling. -e et: to be a cardsharp.

7. In Redhouse: 1. musician. 2. cheating gamester, sharper.

8. Even though there is only a one year age difference between the two, when Íerif Içli was present, Yorgo Bacanos would switch to the piano. Since Içli does not play any other instrument, there is a practical side to this action. Also, Içli was preferred by the soloists for his quiet, supportive performance style as opposed to the style of Bacanos in which cromaticism and other virtuosic techniques were incorporated.

9. For instance, such prominant gazino soloists as Gönül Yazar, Nükhet Duru, and Sibel Can were introduced to the gazino world upon the recommendation of Erol Simavi, a personal friend of the “King of Gazinos,” Fahrettin Aslan.

10. The striking parallels between the two artists suggest a further comparative study.

11. Gür 1996: 59.

12. The last surviving large gazino, the Maksim in the Beyoglu district, owned by the “king of gazino-s” Fahrettin Aslan, has been struggling since reopening in the mid 1990s.

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